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Gallia Aquitania

Contents

This page includes the following civitates. In later Aquitania I, those of the Bituriges Cubi (ancient diocese of Bourges), Lemovices (ancient diocese of Limoges with Tulle), Arverni (ancient diocese of Clermont with Saint-Flour), Vellavi (ancient diocese of Le-Puy-en-Velay), Gabali (ancient diocese of Mende), Ruteni (ancient dioceses of Rodez with Vabres and Albi with Castres), Cadurci (ancient diocese of Cahors with Montauban). In later Aquitania II, those of the Pictones (ancient diocese of Poitiers with Luçon and Maillezais), Santones (ancient dioceses of Saintes with La Rochelle and Angoulême), Petrocorii (ancient diocese of Périgueux with Sarlat), Nitiobriges (ancient diocese of Agen with Condom), Bituriges Vivisci (ancient diocese of Bordeaux). In later Novempopulania, those of the Boiates (ancient diocese of Biganos-Lamothe), Tarbelli (ancient dioceses of Dax with Bayonne, Lescar, and Oloron), Tarusates (ancient diocese of Aires), Vasates (ancient diocese of Bazas), Elusates (ancient diocese of Eauze, later Auch), Lectorates (ancient diocese of Lectoure), Auscii (ancient diocese of Auch), Bigerri (ancient diocese of Tarbes), Convenae (ancient diocese of Comminges), and Consoranni (ancient diocese of Couserans).

Common remarks: the place-names have been put in the nominative case, an asterisk * means not attested, reconstructed form. The late place-names of probable Latin origin have not been included. The IE roots are in the form given by Pokorny's Indogermanische Wörterbuch. The links will be active when the single pages will be published, see the main page. For any comment, suggestion, email me.

Gallia_1 (1430K)

Bituriges Cubi

Aquae Bormonis

Alerta
  • Place: Ardentes, department Indre, region Centre, France
  • Name: Alerta (Peut.)
  • Etymology: The original form is unknown [Falileyev].

Argantomagus

Avara fl.

Avaricum

Cantilia

Elaver fl.

Ernodurum
  • Place: Arnaise of Saint-Ambroix, department Cher, region Centre, France
  • Name: Ernodorum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: A Gaulish compound of duron 'market' and what is usually [Delamarre, p. 152; Nègre, p. 176] regarded as a personal name.

Gabris
  • Place: Gièvres, department Loir-et-Cher, region Centre, France
  • Name: Gabris (Peut.)
  • Etymology: From a Gaulish personal name Gabrius [Nègre, p. 226] probably meaning 'the Goat' or directly reflecting the appellative '(place of the) goats'.

Mediolanum (Biturigum)

Neriomagus
  • Place: Néris-les-Bains, department Allier, region Auvergne, France
  • Name: Aquae Nerii (Peut., It. Ant.) Neriomagus (inscr.)
  • Etymology: Originally a Gaulish compound name [Delamarre, p. 205; Nègre, p. 161] meaning 'marketplace of Nerios (a water-god)'. The Latin name is a Roman translation.

Tincontium
  • Place: Sancoins, department Cher, region Centre, France
  • Name: Tincollum (Peut.) Tincontium (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Either to be read *Cingonium from the survival of the name and explained from a Gaulish personal name [Delamarre, p. 252; Nègre, p. 228], or from a Gaulish element *tinco- of unknown meaning [Falileyev].

Uxellodunum

Lemovices

Acitodunum
  • Place: Ahun, department Creuse, region Limousin, France
  • Name: Acitodunum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 39; Falileyev] considered a Gaulish compound of acito- 'plain' and dunon 'fortress'. The Gaulish word for 'plain' has been postulated from Old Irish achad, with no IE etymology. A. Fournet considers it a "Kartic" derivative of the IE root *ag'- 'to lead (*drive cattle)'.

Augustoritum

*Blatomagus

Briva Curretia

Cassinomagus

Arverni

Ariolica

Augustonemetum
  • Place: Clermont-Ferrand, department Puy-de-Dôme, region Auvergne, France
  • Name: Aug. Nemetum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Literally means 'temple of Augustus', from Gaulish nemeton 'temple', a word derived from the IE root *nem- 'to bend'. However, [Delamarre, p. 66] proposes that the Augusto- element is a translation of an earlier Gaulish prefix ver- having the same meaning, and thus the placename should be interpreted as 'great temple'.

Briva

Eburolacum

Gergovia

Ubimum
  • Place: not identified, department Puy-de-Dôme, region Auvergne, France
  • Name: Ubimum (?) (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Vorogium
  • Place: Vouroux of Varennes-sur-Allier, department Allier, region Auvergne, France
  • Name: Vorogium (Peut.) Vorocium (coins)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 278] explained from the theonym Mars Vorocius.

Vellavi

Ruessio
  • Place: La Rochelambert of Saint-Paulien, department Haute-Loire, region Auvergne, France
  • Name: Ruesium (Ptol.) Ruessio (Peut.)
  • Etymology: From an attested personal Roesius (*Rovesios) name meaning 'Great Science' [Delamarre, p. 223] or 'Great Lead' [Falileyev].

Gabali

Anderitum

Cebenna m.
  • Place: mounts Cevennes, department Lozère, region Languedoc-Roussillon, France (and probably the entire Massif Central)
  • Name: Cevenna m. (Caes.) Cebenna m. (Plin.) Cebennae m. (Auson.) Cemmenum m. (Strab., Ptol.) Cebennae m. (Mel.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 111; Nègre, p. 131] related to a Celtic word *kebno- 'back, ridge', with a spirant b.

Condate

Trevidum

Ruteni

Albiga

Carantomagus

Condatomagus

Segodunum

Triobris fl.

Cadurci

Cosa

Divona
  • Place: Cahors, department Lot, region Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • Name: Dueona (Ptol.) Bibona (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 136] interpreted as a Gaulish word meaning 'the goddess'.

Tarnis fl.

Uxellodunum

Varadetum

Pictones

Aunedonnacum
  • Place: Aulnay, department Charente-Maritime, region Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Name: Avedonnacum (Peut.) Aunedonnacum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Unkwown due to unclear original form of the name [Delamarre, p. 67; Isaac].

Brigiosum
  • Place: Brioux-sur-Boutonne, department Deux-Sèvres, region Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Name: Brigiosum (Peut.) Briossum (late antiquity)
  • Etymology: The stem *brig- is formally identical to Gaulish briga 'hill' [Nègre, p. 150]. However, the derivation from a personal name is not impossible [Delamarre, p. 88].

Limonum

Rauranum
  • Place: Rom, department Deux-Sèvres, region Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Name: Rarauna (Peut.) Rauranum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Explained [Delamarre, p. 224] from a personal name, because Gaulish etymologies of the stem *raur-, *rour- point to hydronyms, which is not the case of the placename in question.

Ratiatum

Santones

Carantonus fl.

Condate

Eculisna
  • Place: Angoulême, department Charente, region Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Name: Iculisma or Eculisna (Auson.) Ecolisma (Not. Dign.) Egolisma (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Uncertain [Delamarre, p. 149].

Mediolanum Santonum

Novioregum
  • Place: possibly Le Fâ of Barzan, department Charente-Maritime, region Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Name: Novioregum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: A clear compound name, whose first element is Gaulish novio- 'new' [Delamarre, p. 208].

Sarrum
  • Place: possibly Charmant, department Charente, region Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Name: Sarrum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: The stem *sarr- is sometimes interpreted [Delamarre, p. 229-230] as an ablaut variant of *serr < *serp- 'serpent'. While this analysis may be sound for compound names, here it probably does not apply since the element is isolated.

Tamnum

Petrocorii

Calembrio

Diolindum

Vesunna
  • Place: Vésone of Périgueux, department Dordogne, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Vesunna (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 268] reconstructed as Uesun(n)a, a Gaulish goddess name ('the good one').

Nitiobriges

Aginnum

Excisum
  • Place: Eysses of Villeneuve-sur-Lot, department Lot-et-Garonne, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Excisum (Peut., It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: A Latin appellative excisio 'cut' or a Gaulish personal name Exs-cisso-s [Delamarre, p. 152].

Vesubium

Bituriges Vivisci

Blavia

Burdigala
  • Place: Bordeaux, department Gironde, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Burdigala (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Explained from an unattested Gaulish personal name [Delamarre, p. 93], generically as pre-Celtic [Nègre, p. 54], or with Basque appellatives, e.g., (b)urde 'boar' [Orpustan] or burdin 'iron'.

Corterate
  • Place: Coutras, department Gironde, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Corterate (Peut.)
  • Etymology: The ending -ate points toward a derivation from the personal name Corteros [Delamarre, p. 126].

Duranius fl.

Garunna fl.

Noviomagus

Varatedum
  • Place: Vayres, department Gironde, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Varatedum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Two possible Gaulish reconstructions are proposed [Delamarre, p. 258]. One is *Vo-rati-do- 'under the the walls', with Gaulish vo- 'under' (from the IE root *upo- 'id.') and ratis 'walls, fort'. The other is a less clear vor-rat-edo.

Boiates

Losa

Salomagus

Segosa

Sigmatis fl.
  • Place: river Eyre, department Landes, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Sigmatis fl. (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Telonnum

Tarbelli

Aspaluca
  • Place: Accous, department Pyrénées-Atlantiques, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Aspa Luca (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: To be compared with Aspis (Tarraconensis) in the same Iberian domain. This series has been explained [Orpustan, p. 82] with a Vasco-Aquitanian form aitz-pe 'beneath the rocky peak'.

Atur fl.

Beneharnum
  • Place: Lescar, department Pyrénées-Atlantiques, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Bene(h)arnum (It. Ant.) Benarnum (Not. Dign., Greg. Tur.) Benarna (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Generally considered a Vasco-Aquitanian name, without any convicing explanation.

Cocosa
  • Place: close to Sindères, department Landes, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Coequosa (It. Ant.), *Cocosa (Caes.)
  • Etymology: The name compares with that of the Cocosates (a minor tribe) and has been related with a Basque kokots 'chin'.

Iluro
  • Place: Oloron of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, department Pyrénées-Atlantiques, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Iluro (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Usually explained [Orpustan(2), p. 42] with a Vasco-Aquitanian il(t)ur 'village, rural domain'.

Lapurdum
  • Place: Bayonne, department Pyrénées-Atlantiques, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Lapurdum (Not. Dign.)
  • Etymology: Tentatively explained [Orpustan, p. 20] as a Vasco-Aquitanian compound lab-urd(i), where the stem urd meant probalby 'flat' and lab- 'oven' or 'clearing (cleared by the fire)'. The general meaning would have been 'plain of the clearings'.

Magrada fl.

Mosconum
  • Place: unknown, department Landes, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Mosconum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Tentatively it could be related to Basque musko, mosko 'hilltop'.

Tarusates

Atura

Vasates

Cossium
  • Place: Bazas, department Gironde, region Aquitaine, France
  • Name: Cossium (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Traditionally related to Basque koiz 'height'.

Elusates

Elusa

Sotium
  • Place: Sos, department Lot-et-Garonne, region Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • Name: *Sottium (Plin.), *Socium (Caes.), Scittium (Burd.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Lectorates

Lactora
  • Place: Lectoure, department Gers, region Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • Name: Lactora (Peut., Not. Dign.), Lactura (It. Ant.), Lacura (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Auscii

Belsinum
  • Place: Boussens of Samaran, department Gers, region Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • Name: Belsinum (It. Ant.) Besinum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: For this name both a Gaulish and a Vasconic etymology have been proposed [Delamarre, p. 75]. As a Gaulish placename it could be derived from the theonym Belsinos 'that of the fields' (from belsa 'field'). As a Vasco-Aquitanian name, it has been related to Basque beltz 'black'.

Elimberris

Vanesia
  • Place: Saint-Jean-Poutge, department Gers, region Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • Name: Vanesia (Burd.)
  • Etymology: Generally considered as a Vasco-Aquitanian river name, but without any convincing etymology.

Bigerri

Turba
  • Place: Tarbes, department Hautes-Pyrénées, region Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • Name: Turba (Not. Dign.) Talva (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Unclear, albeit generally considered as a Vasco-Aquitanian name.

Convenae

Lugdunum

Consoranni

Conclusions

Most of the region north of the Garonne river presents a clear Gaulish stratum.

In the areas of the 'Nine peoples' (Novempopulania), Gaulish placenames are much more rare, if any exists. In these areas there is good evidence of a Vasco-Aquitanian stratum, which seemingly stretched on both sides of the Pyrenees. Such a stratum (probably a superstratum that displaced a Celtic continuum) is recognizable from typical words and compounds that found a parallel in modern Basque language.

A third stratum could be identified if one posits sound changes like *g('h)>k to explain some placenames in a non-Gaulish, IE context. This stratum has been called "Kartic" by A. Fournet.