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Gallia Cispadana

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This page is devoted to the VIII Regio Augustea Gallia Cispadana, i.e., the part of Gallia Cisaplina south of the Padus fl.. The Crustumius fl. was the boundary between Cispadana and Ager Gallicus belonging to Umbria. Purely conventional were the borders with the regio Liguria.

Common remarks: the place-names are given in the nominative case

Cispadana (405K)

Anemo fl.

Aprusa fl.

Ariminus fl., Ariminum

Bedesis fl.

Bononia, Felsina

Brixellum

Butrium
  • Place: Via Cerba di Ravenna, province Ravenna, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Butrium (Ptol., Strab., Plin., Peut.)
  • Etymology: The Latin appellative butrium 'small stream' is probably related to this place name (UTET), together with Greek bothros 'id.' (from the IE root *gwadh- 'to sink, submerge' ?). Probably another *Butrium was placed by the boundaries of Liguria and possibly the one mentioned by Ptolemy was in Venetia.

Caesena

*Celeia

Clastidium

*Claterna fl., Claternum

Crustumius fl.

*Druentia fl.

Faventia
  • Place: Faenza, province Ravenna, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Faventia (Ptol., Strab., Plin., Liv., Vell., Peut., Burd.)
  • Etymology: An augural name from Latin faveo,-ere 'to favor'.

Fidentia
  • Place: Fidenza, province Parma, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Fidentia (Ptol., Plin., Vell., Burd., Peut.)
  • Etymology: An augural name from Latin fidere 'to trust'.

Forum Cornelii
  • Place: Imola, province Bologna, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Forum Cornelii (Ptol., Strab., Plin., Peut., Burd.)
  • Etymology: From the name of its founder, Lucius Cornelius Silla, while forum is Latin for 'marketplace'.

Forum Gallorum
  • Place: not identified, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Forum Gallorum (Cic., Peut.)
  • Etymology: From the name of the Galli who were the inhabitants of the territory in the late 1st millennium b.C.

Forum Licini
  • Place: not identified, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Forum Licini (Plin.)
  • Etymology: From Latin forum 'marketplace' and a name Licinius.

Forum Livii
  • Place: Forlė, province Forlė-Cesena, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Forum Livii (Plin., Peut., Burd.)
  • Etymology: From the name of its founder, possibly the consul M. Livius Salinator.

Forum Popilii
  • Place: Forlimpopoli, province Forlė-Cesena, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Forum Pompilii (Ptol.) Forum Popilii (Plin.) Forum Popili (Burd., Peut.)
  • Etymology: From the name of the gens Popilia.

Gabellus fl.

Incia fl.
  • Place: river Enza, province Reggio nell'Emilia, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Incia fl. (Plin.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Litubium

Mutina

Otesia

Padinum

Parma

Placentia
  • Place: Piacenza, province Piacenza, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Placentia (Ptol., Strab., Plin., Cic., Peut., Burd.)
  • Etymology: An augural name, from Latin placere 'to please'.

Ravenna

Regium Lepidum
  • Place: Reggio nell'Emilia, province Reggio nell'Emilia, region Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • Name: Regium Lepidum (Ptol., Plin., Tac.) Regium (Burd.)
  • Etymology: Probably founded by Aemilius Lepidus at the time of the construction of the Via Aemilia.

Rhenus fl.

Rubico fl.

Sapis fl.

Scultenna fl.

Silarus fl.

Tannetum

Tarus fl.

Utis fl.

Veleia

Conclusions

The toponymy of Cispadana shows at least three possible linguistic strata. The larger should be interpreted as Celtic, and Gaulish in particular, for some typical phonetic feature (e.g., disappearance of initial *p), or for the existence of related appellatives in the Gaulish language or exact toponymic counterparts in the Celtic domain.

A more speculative stratum is that of the "Pelasgians". According to my personal reconstruction, these pre-Greek language characterized by a typical consonant shift (e.g., *d>t) is responsible of some placenames. The Pelasgians should be identified with the "Tessali" mentioned by some classical source (e.g. Strabo) and they may be arrived at the seabords of Northern Adriatic, as well as in other parts of Italy, particularly Southern Etruria.

A minor number of placenames could have been related to Etruscan (non-IE) language. At least one place name is likely Umbrian. Many others could have been originated from a Pre-Celtic language, also differing from Ligurian (at least in the sense here given to the name "Ligurian")