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Illyricum

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The Roman province of Illyricum was bounded by the Ras^a river (toward Venetia), the river Drin (toward Macedonia), and the Adriatic sea. Toward Pannonia and Moesia in the interior the boundaries are less clear but they should have followed the mountain ranges of Velebit, Bosnia, and Montenegro.

From the river Ras^a to the river Zrmanja and then to the Krka, the land was inhabited by Iapydes and Liburni, from the Krka to the river Neretva, it was called Dalmatia, and from the Neretva to the Drin, Illyria proper (Barbara or Romana).

Common remarks: the place-names have been put in the nominative case, an asterisk * means not attested, reconstructed form. The late place-names of probable Latin origin have not been included. The IE roots are in the form given by Pokorny's Indogermanische Wörterbuch. The links will be active when the single pages will be published, see the main page. For any comment, suggestion, email me.

Illyricum1 (168K)

Liburnia

Aenona

Adra

Albius m.

Alvona

Arba

Argyruntum

Arupium

Asseria

Assessia

Ausancalio

Avendo

Blanona

Burnum

Clambetae

Corinium

Flanona

Fulfinium

Iader

*Lacinium

Lopsica
  • Place: Sveti Juraj of Senj, county Primorsko-Goranska, Croatia
  • Name: Lopsica (Ptol., Plin.) Ampsi (Scyl.) Puplisca (Rav.)
  • Etymology: The town took its name from that of the tribe Lopsi, which recalls the Greek gloss lops 'chlamys' (Hes.)

Monetium

Metulum

Nedinum

Oeneus fl.

*Olbona

Ortopla

Pasinum

Scardona

Senia

Stulpi

Tarsatica

Tedanius fl.
  • Place: river Zrmanja, county Zadarska, Croatia
  • Name: Tedanius fl. (Ptol.) Telavius fl. (Plin.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Tediastum

Terponus

Titius fl.

Varvaria
  • Place: Bribinska Glavica of Skradin, county S^ibensko-Kninska, Croatia
  • Name: Varvaria (Ptol., inscr.)
  • Etymology: It is not clear if the Varvarini of Pliny, a Liburnian tribe, referred to the same town. Tentatively, the Varvarini might have been 'the lesser *Varvari' and similarly Varvaria 'the town of the *Varvari. The latter were named 'the squirrels', from a reduplication form *uer-uer- of the IE root reconstructed as *uer- 'squirrel, etc.'

Vegium

Volcera

Isles near Liburnia

Absorrus i., Absortium, Apsyrtides i.

Crepsa i.

Curicta i., Curicum

Fertina i.

Gissa i., Cissa

Lissa i.

Dalmatia

Adrium m.

Aequum

Andetrium

Arauzona

Aronia, Mucurum

Bariduum

Bathinus fl.

Bigeste

Billubium
  • Place: Lokvic^ic^i, county Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia
  • Name: Billubium (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Bistua Vetus, Bistua Nova
  • Place: Bugojno, canton Srednjobosanski or Varvara of Prozor-Rama, canton Hercegovac^ko-Neretvanski (Bistua Vetus), possibly Zenica, canton Zenic^ko-Dobojski (Bistua Nova), Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Name: Bistue Vetus, Bistue (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Collentum, Collentum i.

Delminium

Drinus fl.

Enderum

Epetium

Ludrum

Nareste

Narona

Nestus fl.

Ninia
  • Place: Spas of Knin, county S^ibensko-Kninska, Croatia
  • Name: Ninia (Strab.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Oneum, *Almo

Osinium

Pelva

Pituntium

Promona

Salona

Sicum

Siparuntum

Tariona

Tilurius fl., Tilurium

Tragurium

Tribulium
  • Place: possibly the same as Tilurium
  • Name: Tribulium (Plin.)
  • Etymology: The name may be analyzed as tri-bulium, or the place of the 'three hills', from the numeral 'three' (*trei-) and an appellative derived from the IE root *b(h)eu- 'to swell, puff'. But possibily the name in Pliny is just a misspelling of Tilurium.

Isles near Dalmatia

Bova i.

Brattia i., Elaphusa i.

Issa i.
  • Place: island Vis, county Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia
  • Name: Issa i. (Ptol., Plin., Scyl.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Pharia i.

Solentia i.

Illyria Romana

Acruvium

Aleta

Anderva
  • Place: close to Niks^ic', state Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro
  • Name: Sanderua (Peut.) Anderba (Rav.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Asamum

Assidium
  • Place: Uksici or Mosko of Trebinje, republic Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Name: Adzizium (Peut.) Assidium (Guid.) Zidium (Rav.)
  • Etymology: Usually analyzed as *ad zizium and explained as a name meaning 'goat', from the IE root *g'haido- 'goat'. This is considered one of the proofs that the "Illyrian" language was satem, since *g'h>z in satem languages. However the same IE root is often reconstructed as *ghaido- since it does not have any sure satem cognates.

Birziminium

Butua

Cattarus
  • Place: Kotor, state Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro
  • Name: Cattarus (Proc.) Catharus (inscr.) Decadarum (Rav., Guid.) Decatera (Porph.)
  • Etymology: Unknown. The Latin syntagm de Cathar(o) was probably analyzed in medieval Greek sources as Dekadaro(n).

Chinna

Creveni

Damastium

Daorsum
  • Place: Os^anic'i of Stolac, canton Hercegovac^ko-Neretvanski, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Name: Daorson (inscr.)
  • Etymology: From the tribe name Daorsi.

Diluntum

Doclea
  • Place: Duklja of Podgorica, state Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro
  • Name: Doclea (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Probably a local name later Grecized as Dioclea.

Drilo fl.

Epicaria
  • Place: Pukė, district Pukė, Albania
  • Name: Epicaria (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Likely a Greek name, similarly to the not identified Epidotium (Peut.).

Epidaurus
  • Place: C^avtat of Konavle, county Dubrovac^ko-Neretvanska, Croatia
  • Name: Epidaurus (Ptol., Plin.) Epitaurum (Peut., Guid.)
  • Etymology: From the name of Epidaurus in Argolis.

Gabuleum

Labeatis lac.
  • Place: lake Shkodrės/Skadarsko, Albania/Montenegro
  • Name: Labeatis (Liv.)
  • Etymology: From the tribe name Labeati, which in turn may derive from a placename *Labea.

Leusinum

Lissus, Acrolissus

*Maluntum

Meteon

Naro fl.

Pardua

Rhizinium, Rhizonicus sin., Rhizon fl.

Salluntum
  • Place: not identified, state Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro
  • Name: Salluntum (Peut., It. Ant.) Saluntum (Rav.)
  • Etymology: The name of this town is probably related to the tribe of the Sallentini in Apulia. The ending -untum is typically Illyrian.

Salthua

Scodra

Thermidava
  • Place: not identified
  • Name: Thermidava (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: This twon was located in the inner part of the province of Illyria, in or close to Dardania (roughly present-day Kosovo). According to Georgiev, the name is clearly Daco-Mysian since it shows the typical compound word dava 'town'. The Daco-Mysian stratum extended westward until Dardania and Moesia Superior. The stem therm- could be a Grecized form.

Ulcinium

Isles near Illyria

Corcyra Nigra

Melita i.

Ladesta
  • Place: island Lastovo, county Dubrovac^ko-Neretvanska, Croatia
  • Name: Ladestris i. (Peut.) Ladesta i. (Steph. Byz.)
  • Etymology: A formation with the ending -ste, but the stem is unknown.

Conclusions

The linguistic situation of the Roman province of Illyricum is rather unclear and highly disputed between supporters of its (at least partly) satem feature. Moreover, this hypothetic satem language is often intepreted as to be the ancestor of the modern Albanian language.

Actually, toponymy suggests that there was at least one satem stratum, in Illyria proper and surprisingly in the inner part of southern Dalmatia (parts of today Hercegovina, Montenegro and Sandjak). However, this language cannot be the direct ancestor of Albanian for many reasons. It may tentatively be identified with a Mysian-like language. Continuity theory supporters would rather suggest that it should be identified with an early Slavic language, already present close to the historical Slavic domain.

In Liburnia, a Venetic stratum is easily recognizable for the typical presence of an f from PIE *bh, dh. As recognized by Georgiev and others, Venetic has nothing to do with "Illyrian".

In the rest of Liburnia, in Dalmatia, and in part of Illyria proper, a poorly characterized linguistic stratum may be reconstructed from some typical suffixes, like -etium from *-ent-, from the development of sonants like *n>un and generally for many points of contact with the opposite side of the Adriatic sea. especially Samnium and Apulia. This stratum has been called here Illyrian for what concerning Apulia. Possibly this group of languages coincides with the "Central Illyrian-Pannonian" of the classification (based on anthroponyms) of Katicic'.