Get a site

Umbria

Contents

This page deals with the place-names of a region approximately corresponding to the VI Regio of Italy. This region is bounded by the country of the Picene to the east, the Adriatic sea (north-east), the river Tiber (west). Included here are the towns of the Umbri and the region, formerly Umbrian, which later became the Ager Gallicus.

Common remarks: the place-names have been put in the nominative case, an asterisk * means not attested, reconstructed form. The late place-names of probable Latin origin have not been included. The IE roots are in the form given by Pokorny's Indogermanische Wörterbuch. The links will be active when the single pages will be published, see the main page. For any comment, suggestion, email me.

Samnium (428K)

Umbri

Aesis fl., Aesis

Ameria

Arna

Asisium

Attidium

Camerinum

Carsulae

*Clasius fl.

Clitumnus fl.

Cursula

Forum Flaminii
  • Place: San Giovanni Profiamma di Foligno, province Perugia, region Umbria, Italy
  • Name: Forum Flaminii (Ptol., Plin., Burd.)
  • Etymology: It is a Roman foundation. The name is the Latin forum 'marketplace', specified by the name of the road Flaminia that passed through this town.

Fulginiae

Helvillum

Hispellum

Iguvium

Interamna Nahars

Matilica

Mevania

Nar fl.

Nequinum, Narnia

Nuceria Camellaria

Ocriculum

Plestia

Spoletium

Suillum

Tadinum

Tifernum Tiberinum

Trebiae

Tuder

Urvinum Hortense

Vettona

Galli

Fanum Fortunae
  • Place: Fano, province Pesaro e Urbino, region Marche, Italy
  • Name: Fanum Fortunae (Ptol., Plin., Caes.) Fanum (Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: The name is explained from a 'temple of Fortune' existing in this place, named after Latin fanum 'temple'.

Forum Sempronii
  • Place: San Martino del Piano di Fossombrone, province Pesaro e Urbino, region Marche, Italy
  • Name: Forum Sempronii (Ptol., Plin., Peut.) Forum Simphronii (Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: The name is the Latin forum 'marketplace' and took the second part from C. Sempronius Gracchus.

Isaurus fl., Pisaurum

Metaurus fl.

Mevaniola

Ostra
  • Place: Muracce di Ostra Vetere, province Ancona, region Marche, Italy
  • Name: Ostra (Ptol., Plin.)
  • Etymology: Unknown. The name is certainly from an O-language (Italic, Celtic) and has not strict counterparts.

Pitinum Mergens

Pitinum Pisaurense

Sarsina

Sena Gallica
  • Place: Senigallia, province Pesaro e Urbino, region Marche, Italy
  • Name: Sena Gallica (Ptol.) Senagallia (Plin., Peut.) Senogallia (Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: Usually, it is derived from Gaulish sena 'the old (city)' (UTET), from the IE root *sen- 'old', to which is related also Latin senex.

Sentinum

Sestinum

Suasa

Tifernum Metaurense

Tuficum
  • Place: Borgo Tufico di Fabriano, province Ancona, region Marche, Italy
  • Name: Tuficum (Ptol., Plin.)
  • Etymology: The place-name can likely derive from an Umbrian appellative related to oscan *tufus, from which came the Latin tofus 'tufo stone'.

Urvinum Metaurense

not identified

Acerrae

Casuentum
  • Place: not identified
  • Name: *Casuentum from Casuentillani (Plin.)
  • Etymology: Like Casuentus fl. (Lucania), in the same Italic domain, the name is built of a stem *kas-, possibly from the IE root *k'as- 'gray' (compare with Paelignan casnar 'senex'), and a second part that may be the IE *-uent- 'rich of', or a participe marker. In this case, the place-names can be explained from some Osco-Umbrian appellative *kas(u)o- indicating something 'gray' or 'pale', or it can be the participe of an adjective meaning 'shining'.

Crinivolum

Dola

Paesinum

Vindinum

Visuentum

Conclusions

This region is recorded to have been inhabited by the Umbrians, together with some other areas later lost to the Etruscans and Gauls. The language of the Umbrians is that of the Tabulae Iguvinae, and belongs to the Eastern Italic (or Osco-Umbrian) group. The names that show the typical traits of this language group (initial f from the IE aspirated voiced stops, development of the labiovelars into labials, vowelization of the sonants, etc.) are spread across the whole region.

A Gaulish toponymy is also certain and well distributed especially in the Ager Gallicus, as it is obvious, but also south of it at the western borders of Picenum. This Gaulish presence is surprising but appears rather clearly from several place-names perfectly fitted by Gaulish appellatives.