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Venetia et Histria

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This chapter treats of the X regio of Italy, Venetia et Histria, bordering with Gallia Transpadana at the Adda river, with Gallia Cispadana at the Po river, with the Adriatic sea on the East, with Illyria on the Arsia river, with Pannonia and Noricum at the Alps. Traditional inhabitants of this region were the Celtic tribes Cenomani, Beluni, and Carni, besides the Veneti that gave the name to the region. Histria was considered an almost separated region, united only after Augustus.

Common remarks: the place-names are given in the nominative case.

Venetia (405K)

Cenomani

Ariolica

Benacus lac.

Bedriacum

Brixia

Cremona

Endidae

Forum Iuguntorum
  • Place: not proveably Pizzighettone, province Cremona, region Lombardia, Italy
  • Name: Forum Iuguntorum (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: A market of the Celtic tribe of the Iugunti.

Mantua

Mincius fl.

Sabio

Salurnis

Sirmio

Tridente
  • Place: Trento, province Trento, region Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • Name: Tridente (Ptol., Plin., Strab.) Tredente (Peut.) Tridentum (Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: Apparently, the name meant 'three teeth', referring to some mountains close to the town. Pliny reports that the settlement was founded by the Rhaetians.

Verona

Vipitenum
  • Place: Vipiteno/Sterzing, province Bolzano/Bozen, region Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • Name: Vipitenum (It. Ant.) Vepitenum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Beluni

Anaunium
  • Place: unknown, province Trento, region Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • Name: Anaunium (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: It could have been a Celtic name *anamna, since it compares with various Alauna (Britannia), all explained from a previous *alamna.

Alsuca

Belunum

Berua

Carraca

Feltria

Veneti

Acelum

Adria

Altinum

Atesis fl., Atesinus fl.

Ateste

Atina

*Brinta fl., Meduacus fl.

Ceneta

Concordia
  • Place: Concordia Sagittaria, province Venezia, region Veneto, Italy
  • Name: Concordia (Ptol., Plin., Strab., Mel., Burd., Peut., Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: A Roman colony that took its augural name from Latin concordia 'harmony'.

Liquentia fl.

Opitergium

Patavium

Plavis fl.

Silis fl.

Tarvisium

Tilaventus fl.

Vicetia

Carni

Alsa fl.

Anaxus fl.

Apicilia
  • Place: Latisana, province Udine, region Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • Name: Apicilia (Burd.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Aquileia

Artenia

Broxas

Caelina

Cormones
  • Place: Cormons, province Udine, region Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • Name: Cormones (Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: If the original version is *Carmones, this may be intepreted as a tribal name related to the name of the 'ermine' (Old High German harmo) or of the 'weasel' (Rhaeto-roman carmun), both from a word *carmo- (Pokorny).

Forum Iulii
  • Place: Cividale del Friuli, province Udine, region Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • Name: Forum Iulii (Ptol., Plin., Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: A municipium founded by Caesar, it took the name from that of the gens Iulia.

Glemona

Iulium Carnicum
  • Place: Fielis di Zuglio, province Udine, region Friuli venezia Giulia, Italy
  • Name: Iulium Carnicum (Plin.)
  • Etymology: Founded by Caesar, it took the name from that of the gens Iulia.

Natiso fl.

Ocra m., Alpis Iulia m.

Osupum

Segesta

Varamus fl.

Histria

Aegida, Capris

Aesontius fl.

Argaum fl.

Arsia fl.

Cissa i.

Faveria
  • Place: Rakalj/Castelnuovo of Marc^ana/Marzana, county Istarska, Croatia
  • Name: Faveria (Liv.)
  • Etymology: Unlike another Faveria (Picenum), this name could not derive from a Roman gentilitial name Faverius, but it could be cognate of latin favere 'to favor', from the IE root *ghou(e)-. In this case the place-name would be one of the various showing a linguistic shift *bh, dh, gh > f as in Italic.

Formio fl.

*Haemonia

*Halietum

Humagum
  • Place: Umag/Umago, county Istarska, Croatia
  • Name: Humagum (Rav., Guid.) Umagum (Guid.)
  • Etymology: The ending has been reconducted to the Celtic appellative *magos 'field'.

Mutila

Nesactium

Ningus fl.
  • Place: river Mirna/Quieto, county Istarska, Croatia
  • Name: Ningus fl. (It. Ant.) Nengum fl. (Rav.)
  • Etymology: Unknown.

Parentium

Petina

Piquentum

Piranum
  • Place: Piran/Pirano, region Primorska, Slovenia
  • Name: Piranum (Rav., Guid.) Piranium (Guid.)
  • Etymology: Not clear whether it is an old name or a praedial name. The stem *pir- appears in some Greek placename.

Pola, Polaticus sin.

Pucinum

Pullariae i.
  • Place: islands Brijuni/Brioni, county Istarska, Croatia
  • Name: Pullariae i. (Plin., Peut.)
  • Etymology: A Latin name ?

*Rubinium

Silbio
  • Place: Salvore of Umag/Umago, county Istarska, Croatia
  • Name: Silvum (Peut.) Silbio (Rav.) Silbonis (Guid.) Silvium (Guid.)
  • Etymology: Actual form and meaning unknown.

Sipparis

Tergeste

Timavus fl.

Vistrum

Not identified

*Flamonia

*Foretum

*Quarquenum

Conclusions

The linguistic strata that is possible to distinguish are at least two. The most characterized is perhaps the Celtic one, mainly due to the Cenomani, the Carni, and apparently the Beluni, all encompassing the pre-Alpine and Alpine regions. This stratum can be recognized mainly for the similarity of placenames with appellatives in the Celtic languages.

Among other placenames, it is possible to distinguish an O-language stratum, possibly Venetic, also characterized by stop shifts similar to those of Latin, as initial *bh>f, or preservation of *kw.

It is disputed whether a Rhaetian, e.g., Etruscan stratum could be identified or not in the Northern part of the region.