Get a site

Hirpinia et Daunia

Contents

This is the first page of the two devoted to the second region of Italy, Apulia et Calabria. For the other part, see under Apulia (which includes Calabria or Messapia). This first part considers the region of the Hirpini, bounded by Campania and Samnium, the region of the Dauni, between the river Ofanto and the Gargano, and the region of the Apuli proprie dicti and of the Frentani Larinates, between the Gargano and the river Biferno.

Common remarks: the place-names have been put in the nominative case, an asterisk * means not attested, reconstructed form. The late place-names of probable Latin origin have not been included. The IE roots are in the form given by Pokorny's Indogermanische Wrterbuch. The links will be active when the single pages will be published, see the main page. For any comment, suggestion, email me.

Hirpinia

Hirpini

Abella

Abellinum Protropi

Aeculanum

Aequum Tuticum

Aletrium

Aquilonia

Beneventum

Calor fl.

Caudium, Furculae Caudinae

Compsa

Fratuolum

Plistica

Romulea

Saticula
  • Place: Sant'Agata de' Goti, province Benevento, region Campania, Italy
  • Name: Saticula (Liv., Verg.)
  • Etymology: The name is likely to be a diminutive of a *sati-ko-, but the etymology is unknown.

Sicilinum
  • Place: not identified, region Campania, Italy
  • Name: Sicilinum (Liv.)
  • Etymology: It recalls clearly the name of Sicilia, but also other place names of a series *sic-, found especially in Italy and Greece.

Taburnus m.

Tamarus fl.

Taurasia

Vescellium

Dauni

Aecae

Altaenus fl.

Anxanum

Aquilo fl.

Arpi, Argos Hippium, Argyrippa

Aufidus fl.

Ausculum

Cannae

Canusium

Cerbalus fl.

Collatia

Furfana

Garganus m.

Garnae

Herdonia

Hyrium

Luceria

Metina

Pantanus lac.

Salapia

Sipuntum
  • Place: Siponto di Manfredonia, province Foggia, region Puglia, Italy
  • Name: Sipuntum (Ptol., Plin., Strab.) Sipontum (Peut.) Sepontum (Paul. Diac.)
  • Etymology: According to Strabo, it derives from the Greek name for the sepia. The ending -untum may be certainly derived from the IE suffix *-ent-, a participe marker, or *-uent- 'rich of'. The phonetic development of sonant n into un is not Italic and usually is considered "Illyrian". This could fit with the notion of the Dauni as an Illyrian people.

Venusia

Frentani et Apuli

Cliternia

Fertor fl.
  • Place: river Fortore, regions Molise-Puglia, Italy
  • Name: Fertor fl. (Plin.) Frento fl. (?)
  • Etymology: The name seems to be identical to Latin *fertor 'who brings', which shows a clear Italic phonetics. But for the substratists, the name is related to the ethnical Frentani (the people by the Fertor), from a pre-IE stem *frent- 'deer'.

Geronium

Larinum
  • Place: Larino, province Campobasso, region Molise, Italy
  • Name: Larinum (Ptol., Plin., Liv., Mel., Peut.)
  • Etymology: It has been related (UTET) to Latin laridum 'bacon, grease', Greek larinos 'fat', and to the various place names Larissa in Greece. Then a meaning of 'strong' has been postulated. From the Latin and Greek appellatives an IE root *lei- 'fat' has been reconstructed (Pokorny), but without other cognates. Moreover, Georgiev gave a completely different explaination for the place name Larissa. So the etymology of Larinum is unclear.

Teanum Apulum

Vibinum

not identified

*Alfella

*Atrium

Murgantia

Isles in the Adriatic sea

Diomedia i.
  • Place: one of the Tremiti islands, province Foggia, region Puglia, Italy
  • Name: Diomedia i. (Plin.) Diomedeiae i. (Strab.)
  • Etymology: From the name of Diomedes, a Greek hero of the Trojan war who, according to the legend, became a leader in the region of the Dauni.

Teutria i.

Conclusions

The largest part of the placenames in this region is clearly of Oscan origin, which can be traced from some distinctive phonetic traits. Also the languages of the Frentani and (probably) of the Apuli belonged to the Eastern Italic stock, but were different from the Oscan.

In the region of the Dauni, there is evidence of some names that, if their etymology is correct, cannot be Oscan because they show intervocalic voiceless stops from IE aspirated. Considering that the very name of Dauni shares the same feature, being from IE *dhau-no- 'the wolves' (a totemic name) as opposed to Latin Faunus (with f<*dh), it is possible to attribute this stratum to the Dauni themselves. This language has been often considered as part of the Illyrian branch.