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Gallia Lugdunensis

Contents

This page includes the following civitates. In later Lugdunensis I, those of the Segusiavi and Ambarri (ancient diocese of Lyon), Haedui (ancient dioceses of Mâcon, Chalon, Autun, Nevers), Lingones (ancient diocese of Langres). In later Lugdunensis IV, those of the Tricasses (ancient diocese of Troyes), Senones (ancient dioceses of Sens and Auxerre), Parisii (ancient diocese of Paris), Meldes (ancient diocese of Meaux), Carnutes (ancient dioceses of Chartres and Orleans). In later Lugdunensis II, those of the Veliocasses and Caletes (ancient diocese of Rouen and possibly Lillebonne), Aulerci Eburovices (ancient diocese of Evreux), Lexovii (ancient diocese of Lisieux), Baiocasses and Viducasses (ancient diocese of Bayeux), Unelli (ancient diocese of Coutances), Abrincates (ancient diocese of Avranches), Arvii, Esuvii and Sagii (ancient diocese of Exmes and later Séez). In later Lugdunensis III, those of the Redones (ancient diocese of Rennes), Coriosolites (ancient dioceses of Dol, Saint-Malo, and Saint-Brieuc), Osismii (ancient dioceses of Léon, Tréguier, and Cornouaille), Venetes (ancient diocese of Vannes), Namnetes (ancient diocese of Nantes, except lands south of the Loire), Andecaves (ancient diocese of Angers), Aulerci Cenomani and Aulerci Diablinti (ancient dioceses of Le Mans and Jublains), Turones (ancient diocese of Tours).

Common remarks: the place-names have been put in the nominative case, an asterisk * means not attested, reconstructed form. The late place-names of probable Latin origin have not been included. The IE roots are in the form given by Pokorny's Indogermanische Wörterbuch. The links will be active when the single pages will be published, see the main page. For any comment, suggestion, email me.

Gallia_1 (1430K)

Segusiavi and Ambarri

Aquae Segetae
  • Place: Moingt of Montbrison, department Loire, region Rhône-Alpes, France
  • Name: Aquae Segete (Peut.) Aquae (Rev.)
  • Etymology: The name recalls that of the Gaulish goddess Segeta, known from inscriptions.

Arar fl.

*Cosia fl.

Forum Segusiavorum
  • Place: Feurs, department Loire, region Rhône-Alpes, France
  • Name: Forum Segusianorum (Ptol.) Forum Segustavarum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: A Latin name forum 'market', specified by the ethnonym Segusiavi.

Iciomagus

Lugdunum

Lunna
  • Place: between Taponas and Belleville, department Rhône, region Rhône-Alpes, France
  • Name: Lunna (It. Ant.) Ludna (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unclear, given the varieties of the forms.

Mediolanum

*Renus fl.

Rodomna

Haedui

Aballo
  • Place: Avallon, department Yonne, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Aballo (It. Ant., Peut.)
  • Etymology: Well explained (Pokorny) from Gaulish aballo, avallo 'apple(-tree)', although an unattested god name *Aballos has been proposed [Delamarre, p. 37] in alternative.

Alesia

Alisincum

Aquae Nisincii
  • Place: Bourbon-Lancy, department Saône-et-Loire, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Aquae Nisincii (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

*Aronus fl.

*Aturavus fl.

Augustodunum
  • Place: Autun, department Saône-et-Loire, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Augustodunum (Ptol., Mel., Tac., It. Ant., Peut., Not. Dign.)
  • Etymology: Founded under Augustus, it took its name, in compound with Gaulish dunon 'fortress'.

Bibracte
  • Place: mount Beauvray, departments Saône-et-Loire and Nièvre, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Bibracte (Caes., Strab.)
  • Etymology: Traditionally related to the Gaulish name for the 'beaver', *bebro-. More recently [Vendryes; Nègre, p.; Delamarre, p. 78] explained as a reduplication form *bi-bract- of a Gaulish word *bract-, a possible cognate of Greek phraktos 'fence' and thus derived from a PIE root *bharekw- 'to stuff'. However, the Gaulish cognate of this root is barca 'boat, *wooden house'.

Boxum
  • Place: Buis of Chissey-en-Morvan, department Saône-et-Loire, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Boxum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Formally coincident with Latin buxus 'box', but since hybrid compounds with buxus and a Gaulish second element or suffix are known, possibly reflecting an equivalent appellative of the Gaulish language.

Brebona fl.
  • Place: river Brévon, department Côte-d'Or, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Brebona fl. (late antiquity)
  • Etymology: Possibly reflecting Gaulish *bebro- 'beaver', with a late metathesis.

Cabillonum

Carilocus
  • Place: Charlieu, department Saône-et-Loire, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Carilocus (Ptol. ?)
  • Etymology: Not proveably of ancient origin.

Decetia

*Dubina fl.

*Gravona fl.

Matisco

Nevirnum, Noviodunum

Oscara fl.

Pocrinium

Sidolocum

Sitillia
  • Place: Thiel-sur-Acolin, department Allier, region Auvergne, France
  • Name: Sitillia (Peut.)
  • Etymology: From a personal name [Delamarre, p. 239].

Telonnum

Tinurtium
  • Place: Tournus, department Saône-et-Loire, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Tinurtium (It. Ant.) Tenurcium (Peut.) Trinorc(h)ium (late antiquity)
  • Etymology: Unclear due to the variety of the attested forms. Sometimes explained as derived from a personal name [Delamarre, p. 252] or as pre-Celtic [Nègre, p. 57].

Vidubia fl.
  • Place: river Vouge, department Côte-d'Or, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Vidubia (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 269] related to Latin vidubium 'serpent' as a metaphor for the stream. Consider also Gaulish uidu- 'tree' found in several toponymic formations.

Lingones

Andematunnum
  • Place: Langres, department Haute-Marne, region Champagne-Ardenne, France
  • Name: Andomatunum (Ptol.) Andematunnum (Peut., It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: The Gaulish intensive prefix ande- and the element matu- 'bear' are clearly recognizable. Thus a compound name meaning 'great (town) of the bears' [Nègre, p. 137] or from a personal name meaning 'Great chief of the bears' [Delamarre, p. 51].

*Artia fl.
  • Place: river Arce, department Aube, region Champagne-Ardenne, France
  • Name: *Artia fl. (inferred from the survival of the name)
  • Etymology: According to [Delamarre, p. 62], the hydronym means '(stream of) the bears', from Gaulish artos 'bear'. A "pre-Celtic" etymology is given in [Nègre, p. 23].

*Bridena fl.
  • Place: river Brenne, department Côte-d'Or, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Bridena fl. (late antiquity source)
  • Etymology: Explained [Pokorny, p. 164] from the PIE root *bhred(h)- 'to wade, wander'. The original form could have been Bredina (from whence the attested form through a metathesis) or Bredanna.

Dibio
  • Place: Dijon, department Côte-d'Or, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Dibio (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Commonly [Delamarre, p. 138] explained from a personal name or Gaulish div(i)o- 'god'.

*Lagina fl.
  • Place: river Laigne, department Aube, region Champagne-Ardenne, France
  • Name: *Lagina fl. (inferred from the survival of the name)
  • Etymology: Explained [Delamarre, p. 170] from a Gaulish *lagino- 'blade', with Irish equivalent hydronyms.

Mosa

Segessera

Segobodium

Tilena

Varcia
  • Place: close to Larret, department Haute-Saône, region Franche-Comté, France
  • Name: Varcia (Peut., It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Possibly related to Welsh cy-warch 'hemp, flax', attributed together with other Celtic words to a generic PIE root *uer-k- 'to turn, wind, bend'. Sometimes interpreted from a personal name as '(domain) of Varcios' [Delamarre, p. 259].

Tricasses

*Alba fl.

Arciaca
  • Place: Arcis-sur-Aube, department Aube, region Champagne-Ardenne, France
  • Name: Arciaca (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: The name clearly shows the Gaulish suffix -(i)-aco- often used as a derivative from a personal name. A Gaulish personal name Arcu has been actually reconstructed [Delamarre, p. 56], thus 'domain of Arcu' seems the most likely meaning for the placename.

Augustobona
  • Place: Troyes, department Aube, region Champagne-Ardenne, France
  • Name: Augustobona (Ptol., It. Ant., Peut.)
  • Etymology: Formally meaning 'base, foundation (Gaulish bona) of Augustus'.

*Ausa fl.

Clanum

Corobilium

*Vigera fl.

Senones

Agedincum
  • Place: Sens, department Yonne, region Bourgogne, France
  • Name: Agedincum (Caes.) Age(n)dicum (Ptol.) Agetincum (Peut.) Agredincum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Usually considered a derivative from a Gaulish personal name Agedus [Delamarre, p. 41; Nègre, p. 166].

*Alisantia fl.

Aquae Segestae

Autesiodurum

Bandritum

Brivodurum

Condate

Condate

Eburobriga

*Iagonia fl.
  • Place: Juine, department Essonne, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: *Iagonia fl. (inferred from the survival of the name)
  • Etymology: Explained [Delamarre, p. 162] as 'the frozen (river)' from a Celtic stem iag- 'ice', which derives from the PIE root *ieg- 'ice'.

Icauna fl.

Massava

Metlosedum

Odouna fl.
  • Place: river Ouanne, department Loiret, region Centre, France
  • Name: Odouna fl. (inscr.)
  • Etymology: A tentative etymology [Delamarre, p. 210] is *od-omna 'the odoriferous (river)', from a Gaulish cognate of the PIE root *od- 'to smell, to have a (repulsive) smell'.

Salioclita

Vellaunodunum
  • Place: not identified, probably department Loiret, region Centre, France
  • Name: Vellaunodunum (Caes.)
  • Etymology: A clear Gaulish compound name, made up of dunon 'fortress' and vellaunos 'the most valorous', the latter derived from the PIE root *uel- 'to wish, choose'.

*Vosegia fl.

Parisii

Anderitum

*Bebra fl.

*Exonna fl.
  • Place: river Essonne, department Essonne, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: Exona fl. (late antiquity)
  • Etymology: Traditionally related to Acionna, the name of a water goddess or [Nègre, p. 115] to explained as a Gaulish compound of esca 'water' (< isca) and the suffix -ona.

Isara fl.

Lutetia

Matrona fl.
  • Place: river Marne, department Val-de-Marne, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: Matrona fl. (Caes.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Pokorny; Delamarre, p. 194] equated with a theonym Matrona 'mother goddess (of the sources ?)', to be compared with Welsh Modron.

*Orbia fl.
  • Place: river Orge, department Essonne, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: Urbia fl. (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Explained [Delamarre, p. 211] as *orbh-io- 'the heir (of a larger river)', from a Gaulish cognate of the IE root *orbho- 'orphan, servant, work' analogue to Old Irish or(b)e, orpe 'heir'.

Nemetodurum

Meldes

Calagum

Iantinum
  • Place: Meaux, department Seine-et-Marne, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: Latinum (Ptol.) Iantinum (?) Fixtuinum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Explained with a personal name [Delamarre, p. 162] but actually unclear due to the oscillations in the attestations.

Riobe
  • Place: probably Châteaubleau, department Seine-et-Marne, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: Riobe (Peut.)
  • Etymology: According to [Delamarre, p. 221], the etymology is unclear but could tentatively be reconducted to a Gaulish personal name *Riiobiios or *Rigobiios.

Carnutes

Autricum

Belca

Cenabum
  • Place: Orléans, department Loiret, region Centre, France
  • Name: Cenabum (Ptol., Peut.) Genabum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: According to [Delamarre, p. 112], to be explained as *ci-nabon, where nabo- would be a cognate of the PIE root *(e)nebh- 'navel'. The town would have thus been a sort of religious center.

Diodurum

Durocassium
  • Place: Dreux, department Eure-et-Loir, region Centre, France
  • Name: Durocassium (Peut.) Durocassis (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: From the ethnic name Durocasses.

Tasciaca
  • Place: Thésée, department Loir-et-Cher, region Centre, France
  • Name: Tasciaca (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Possibly related through a personal name to Gaulish tasgos 'badger'. Thus meaning 'domain of Tasgos'.

Veliocasses

Breviodurum

Briva Isarae

Isara fl.

*Itta fl.

Petromantalum
  • Place: possibly Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, department Val-d'Oise, region Île-de-France, France
  • Name: Petrum Antalum (Peut.) Petromantalum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Explained as 'crossroad', from Gaulish petru 'four' and mantalon 'road' [Delamarre, p. 216; Pokorny, p. 726]. The latter appellative is derived from the PIE root *men- 'to step, tread over, press', i.e., 'the pressed'.

Ritumagus

Ratumagus

Caletes

Caracotinum
  • Place: Crétin of Harfleur, department Seine-Maritime, region Haute-Normandie, France
  • Name: Carocotinum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Explained from a personal name as 'domain of Caracotinos' [Delamarre, p. 104].

Gravinum
  • Place: Gréaume of Héricourt-en-Caux, department Seine-Maritime, region Haute-Normandie, France
  • Name: Gravinum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Formally equated with Gaulish *grava 'gravel'.

Iuliobona
  • Place: Lillebonne, department Seine-Maritime, region Haute-Normandie, France
  • Name: Iuliobona (Ptol., Peut., It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: An hybrid name, meaning 'foundation of Iulius'.

Lotum
  • Place: Caudebec-en-Caux, department Seine-Maritime, region Haute-Normandie, France
  • Name: Lotum/Loium (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Aulerci Eburovices

*Autura fl.

Condate

Mediolanum Aulercorum

Uggade
  • Place: Caudebec-lès-Elbeuf, department Seine-Maritime, region Haute-Normandie, France
  • Name: Uggade (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Possibly reflecting a personal name [Delamarre, p. 268].

Lexovii

Noviomagus

Sequana fl.
  • Place: river Seine, departments Seine-Maritime and Calvados, regions Haute-Normandie and Basse-Normandie, France
  • Name: Sequana fl. (Ptol., Strab.)
  • Etymology: Traditionally considered as exhibiting a Goidelic-like preservation of PIE *kw (instead of Gaulish shift to p). Likely to be reconstructed instead as *Seko-(w)anas. A proposal [J. Loth] in this direction pointed to the PIE roots *sek- 'to cut' and *uen- 'to hit', as in Welsh hesg 'reed' and, respectively, gwanu 'to pierce'. More likely seems to invoke a different PIE root *sek- 'quiet, lazy' that fits better a river's feature. As for the ending, it is formally identical to the Old-European hydronymic stem *ana.

Baiocasses and Viducasses

Aregenua

Augustodurum

Briovera

Olina fl.

Unelli

Alauna

Coriallo
  • Place: likely by Cherbourg-Octeville, department Manche, region Basse-Normandie, France
  • Name: Coriallo (Peut., It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Explained [Delamarre, p. 125] from a Gaulish personal name Corioval(l)os, whose first element is corio- 'army'. The second element could have been re-interpreted as Latin vallum [Delamarre, ib.; Nègre, p. 150].

Cosedia

Crociatonum

Grannona
  • Place: not proveably Granville, department Manche, region Basse-Normandie, France
  • Name: Grannona (Not. Dign.)
  • Etymology: According to [Delamarre, p. 161] the place name is from a personal name Grannos.

*Viria fl.

Abrincates

Ingena
  • Place: Avranches, department Manche, region Basse-Normandie, France
  • Name: Ingena (Ptol.) Legedia (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Redones

Condate

Sipia, *Sipia fl.

Coriosolites

Aletum

Aregenua fl.

*Reginca fl.

Titus fl.

Osismii

Gabaeum pr.

Gesocribate
  • Place: likely Brest, department Finistère, region Bretagne, France
  • Name: Gesocribate (Peut.)
  • Etymology: A denominal formation from a personal name *Gaiso-cribos [Delamarre, p. 154].

Saliocanus p.

Vorgium, Vorganium
  • Place: Carhaix and possibly Kerilien of Plounéventer if two distinct places, department Finistère, region Bretagne, France
  • Name: Vorgium (Peut.) Vorganium (Ptol., inscr.)
  • Etymology: Possibly from a Gaulish word related to irish ferc 'rage, fury' and derived from the IE root *uerg'- 'to abound, be full of strength', a meaning suitable to the capital of the Osismii. If the two variants referred to two distinct place names, the latter could be a diminutive of the former.

Venetes

Darioritum

Vicinonia fl.
  • Place: river Vilaine, department Morbihan, region Bretagne, France
  • Name: Vicinonia fl. (Greg. Tur.)
  • Etymology: Unknown [Delamarre, p. 268].

Duretia

Herius fl.
  • Place: possibly river Vilaine, department Morbihan, region Bretagne, France
  • Name: Herius fl. (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Tentatively analyzed as 'the Western (river)' [Delamarre, p. 151], from a Gaulish form *e(p)erio- reflecting the IE root *epi 'at, by'. The H is purely graphical.

Sulis
  • Place: Castennec of Bieuzy, department Morbihan, region Bretagne, France
  • Name: Sulis (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Compared with a theonym Sulis (goddess of hot springs) attested in Britain [Delamarre, p. 243].

Vindana p.

Namnetes

Brivates p.

Corbilo

Condivicnum

*Erida fl.

Andecaves

Combaristum
  • Place: Combrée, department Maine-et-Loire, region Pays de la Loire, France
  • Name: Combaristum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually [Delamarre, p. 119] derived from a personal name.

Iuliomagus

*Ledus fl.
  • Place: river Loir, department Maine-et-Loire, region Pays de la Loire, France
  • Name: *Ledus fl. (late antiquity source)
  • Etymology: Unexplained by [Delamarre, p. 174].

Meduana fl.

Robrica

Segora

Aulerci Cenomani

*Ituna fl.

Vindinum

Aulerci Diablinti

*Iagona fl.
  • Place: river Jouanne, department Mayenne, region Pays de la Loire, France
  • Name: Iona fl. (late antiquity source)
  • Etymology: Reconstructed by [Delamarre, p. 162] from a Gaulish cognate of the IE root *ieg'- 'ice'. Thus the meaning would be 'the icy (river)'.

Noviodunum

Arvii, Esuvii, Sagii

Vagoritum, Argentomagus

Turones

Caesarodunum

Conclusions

The most evident stratum found in Lugdunensis is obviously the Gaulish one. Virtually every placename has a Celtic and specifically Gaulish etimology.

The existence of a pre-Celtic stratum has been proposed after a few placenames showing either an unexplained A-grade, the presence of an initial p, or a labiovelar kw. However, alternative Gaulish etymologies can be found for many of these toponyms as well, even if some hydronyms (hydronyms represent generally the oldest stratum of placenames) could really represent a pre-Gaulish stratum.